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Home  / services / Technical Advisory

Protos assists banks, funds and investors with Technical Due Diligence, aimed at financing, carrying out transactions or simply verifying the compliance and state of preservation and usability of energy, infrastructures and real estate assets, and identifying possible corrective actions.

When it comes to developing an initiative, the Due Diligence report focuses on an analysis of the authorisation, technical, organisational and operational, contractual, financial and market context, in order to assess reliability, particularly in terms of time and cost assumptions, and the identification of a market risk framework and mitigation solutions.
On the other hand, when it comes to an asset (or portfolio) to be acquired, the Due Diligence report focuses on the state of preservation and maintenance, usability, planning/building/cadastral legitimacy, plant compliance, completeness of documentation (ownership, certifications and technical checks, building and suitability permits, etc.), in order to identify and enhance the professional and implementation interventions required to achieve an optimal state of the asset.

The Technical Due Diligence process is often supplemented by other services, such as Insurance Due Diligence, Appraisal (for current use or HBU), Transaction Advisory, Design Assessment, Structural & Seismic Assessment, and Energy Efficiency Audit.
The Project Monitoring service is initiated during the closing phase of bank financing and is carried out for the benefit of lending institutions. It consists of monitoring compliance with the development terms and conditions set out in project contracts. Protos is a market leader in this regard and carries out the service with a proactive approach aimed at preventing or mitigating the effects of project developments that are not in line with expectations.
In this sector, the deliverable varies significantly depending on the field, size of the project, complexity of the contractual framework and project costs.
Transaction Advisory is the name we give to a set of services dedicated to all phases of Energy, Infrastructures and Real Estate asset acquisition transaction.

For example, the real estate segment of distressed assets, above all sale-leasebacks, is very active at the moment. Real estate portfolios, repossessed or to be repossessed, are earmarked for repositioning or sale, individually or en bloc, according to the opportunities offered by the market. A ‘dynamic’ view of the technical and market analysis processes of these assets allows for the potential creation of unexpressed value (H&B Use). The service is aimed at banks, leasing companies, large real estate holdings, insolvency administrators, etc.
The process guiding owner companies in identifying and selecting sustainable optimisation or divestment scenarios requires the support of a dedicated Due Diligence team with high technical expertise and market knowledge, and expertise in related legal, tax and financial aspects.

Once the scenarios have been clarified and established, a Project Management team is required to plan activities in line with the owner's result goals and to constantly record progress as well as identify any deviations and corrective actions to achieve the optimisation and/or sales targets.
Protos supports clients in the creation of physical and virtual data rooms to ensure the availability of the technical documents required for informed property management. In the event of sale of the property, Protos supports the notary in reading the documents and preparing the file accompanying the sale.
When providing support for sales transactions or debt restructuring, Protos carries out order portfolio profitability assessments. The service provides for a structured analysis that includes a critical reading and cross-checking of contractual, organisational and production issues, on the one hand, and processes, budgets and costs, on the other.
Protos carries out audits – at various levels of detail – of the adequacy, completeness, regulatory compliance and effectiveness of any engineering design. This activity can be carried out in the areas of financing, transaction (for compliance or best use development), asset management and insurance.
Protos carries out seismic suitability and vulnerability assessments for any engineering work and for buildings. The service is divided into various stages, starting with a preliminary desk-based procedure to check the asset’s eligibility for a seismic vulnerability assessment according to current legislation. In case of positive feedback, the process continues by accessing the deeds, checking the design drawings, conducting on-site investigations (even invasive) and modelling, and concludes with the drafting of a capex plan for adaptation.
Protos Energy carries out, on behalf of investors and energy-intensive companies, the technical and economic evaluation of Energy Plans aimed at improving efficiency, in line with the objectives of optimising consumption and procurement costs; it also provides support for accessing incentive mechanisms and for obtaining certifications to guarantee low environmental impact production processes (ISO50001).
For more than thirty years, our Risk Advisory & Risk Management teams have supported our national and international clients in their complex Energy, Infrastructures, Manufacturing and Real Estate projects, to measure/estimate risks and promote/implement the best strategies, from a best practice perspective, for the correct management of risks associated with the implementation and/or management of the projects themselves.
This service has proven to be an indispensable and effective tool for risk mitigation, particularly for large infrastructure projects, large industrial and energy generation plants, where the highest risks are attributable to the geological, hydrogeological, geotechnical and environmental context and complexity (urban areas, hydraulic risk areas, etc.). Typical deliverables of this service include the Risk Management Plan, Cost & Schedule Contingency Plan and Contractual Risk Allocation Matrix.


Home  / services / Project Control & Construction Management

For your Energy, Infrastructure, Real Estate projects and the remediation of damage from insurance claims, the Protos Project & Construction Management teams provide expertise, experience, skills, methodologies and best practice tools for effective and efficient management of your project.
Objectives and priorities, roles and tasks, resources and constraints, scheduling and coordination: It is our goal to balance, verify, review and monitor these elements in all areas and within project times, as well as to ensure adequate work and communication plans, so that your expectations are met.
For Asset & Investment Managers in the 4 main sectors (energy, infrastructure, real estate and NPE) and for Claim Managers of insurance companies, Protos builds ad hoc Project Control and High Surveillance services to support your Project Management Office.

The Project Control (PC) service proactively supports the Project Manager throughout the project life cycle, from the start phase to commissioning/restoration to its original condition/leasing, by defining objectives, constantly verifying adherence to budget and schedule, and identifying possible improvement actions.
High Surveillance can also cover a project’s entire life cycle but compared to PC it is a service that reads a project holistically, analysing authorisation and planning issues, as well as contractual, organisational and insurance aspects, etc.

The manner in which the two services are carried out and the deliverables can differ significantly depending on the client, both in terms of number and type. They may vary according to the size and duration of the project as well as the type of stakeholder for whom the reporting is intended.
For over 15 years, Protos has designed tailored solutions to monitor and check compliance with the Service Level Agreements of real estate service providers. The service reports on the outcome of audits, ensuring a critical reading of the results with articulated insights into real proposals for variants of tools and processes.
Our clients manage infrastructural assets (e.g.. gas networks, water networks), energy assets (e.g. FV or biomass or wind plants), real estate assets (e.g. investment properties, office buildings, tourist accommodation facilities, etc.).
The Asset Monitoring service concerns all engineering works in operation, relating to the Energy, Infrastructure and Real Estate sector. It is carried out according to methods, techniques, criteria and technologies that depend on the specific sector and the size of the work, its use, utility (public or private) and the trio of reliability, durability and maintainability.
Protos, thanks also to several specialised partnerships, acts as a remote inspector of the state and evolution of works that require, for reasons varying from the state of the work itself to changes in the building and seismic code, accurate monitoring supported by a consultancy monitoring of the results, aimed at guaranteeing effective and sustainable actions.


Home  / services / NPE Services & Advisory

Our teams enrich the database of non-performing loans, both for the structuring of extraordinary portfolio sales and to improve the quality of information and appraise non-performing loans in their management phase.
At the heart of its data remediation services, Protos pays the utmost attention to the quality of data entered in its clients’ IT systems. The creation of mixed technical and legal teams, the high level of specialisation and experience of its core team, and the thorough control procedures ensure the best performance in terms of the quality of data collected with certified quality assurance percentages higher than 99%.
In addition, Protos can guarantee high performance standards by operating on any IT platform used by the client (e.g. Laweb, Syges, EPC, F&G, etc.) as the preferred work environment for data remediation. Protos can also offer its proprietary web application (data remediation toolkit) when required or necessary, both for transient repository needs and in cases where the client’s legacy platforms cannot be used directly.
By using the right mix of manual checks and its specific automatic updating tools, Protos offers a truly robust and cost-effective data maintenance service (in particular for land registry data and executive procedures), both for portfolios already under management (Data Maintenance) and for new portfolios/entries during the initial management phase (Data Opening).
In this regard, Protos uses thorough and ECB-compliant working processes, adopting solid and transparent criteria for its level I and II controls. Thanks to the experience and skills acquired in the various contexts in which it operates, the company can provide all the necessary end-to-end advisory support to customise and share, with every client, a truly effective data maintenance and opening process with the minimum operational impact for the structures involved.
Protos has developed an innovative predictive model that makes it possible to fine-tune the decision-making system linked to UTP/NPL credit management, based on the mapping and evaluation of amounts that guarantors can claim, both within the logic of effort optimisation and cluster prioritisation that the model identifies as those with the highest potential value, and that of increasing the value of portfolios (in particularly those that are predominantly unsecured) subject to sale/purchase.
The results, which Protos is usually able to demonstrate and share with the client through specific preliminary tests, often seem surprising in terms of the potential recoverable value of assets that can be claimed, particularly during the initial phases of problematic credit management.
Protos has developed specific advanced methodological tools for data quality control of positions under third-party management (external servicers) or managed by internal workout structures.

This approach can also be used successfully in support of structures dedicated to level II and III controls, on the basis of specific SLAs referred to Protos as an independent third party and in line with what Protos already does in other contexts (i.e. real estate asset management companies).
In addition, it has been observed how application of this method, where already adopted, enriches level I controls, triggering a virtuous self-correction mechanism (with a favourable impact also in terms of recovery curves), as well as playing an important role in claims prevention, including containing outsourcing management costs.
Protos is a key player in the appraisal market, recognised for its competence and independence, and chosen by the ECB (2020) and the Bank of Italy (2014) for Asset Quality Review processes.

In the NPE market, HBU appraisal is a tool for value creation, to identify strategies to enhance the value of the individual asset or portfolio.
This means that on the basis of the findings of planning and authorisation analyses, as well as the state of development of the asset (greenfield, brownfield, completed, etc.), Protos will identify, among all the technically possible, legally permissible and financially sustainable uses, those that can maximise the potential of the real estate property.
Protos selects the best strategies for its clients, such as Credit Management Companies or owners of repossessed or NPL assets (real estate, plants, capital goods, etc.) for a block sale or asset by asset sale, depending on the context.
From auction promotion to managing the sale of assets through agencies or local real estate brokers, Protos supervises and reports on activities up to the final sales goal.


Home  / services / Litigation & DR Advisory

The traits of independence and impartiality, specialised technical know-how and experience gained in more than thirty years at the service of national and international clients make Protos the ideal partner for the role of independent expert in a wide range of fields, especially in the Energy, Infrastructures, Manufacturing and Real Estate sectors.
By choosing Protos you can count on a specialised, competent and authoritative group, able to promptly develop technically complex evaluations and provide reliable and proven opinions in support of pre-litigation phases.
The typical deliverables of this service are Adequacy Testing, Opinion Report and Expert Report.
In support of the judicial and extrajudicial settlement of proceedings, and more in general, the optimal management of disputes, pre-litigation, arbitration and litigation which in a broader sense require the technical and analytical support of multidisciplinary teams, Protos offers support as a Party-Appointed Expert (PAE) in numerous engineering areas and contexts in the Energy, Infrastructures, Manufacturing and Real Estate sectors.
The work of PAE includes but is not limited to disputes relating to compliance with technical and contractual standards, the quality of works performed, the adequacy of preliminary investigations and design choices, the consistency of execution times and costs, and the congruity between work carried out and contractual requirements.
Protos carries out analyses and assessments of Construction Claims on behalf of General Contractors and Employers.

Through Protos Check, it is the only company in Italy accredited by an independent inspection body for the assessment of construction claims in public contracts and has performed this service since 2012.

Protos’ work is aimed at giving an independent and equidistant opinion of the approaches and positions of the parties, based on an analysis of the various elements of claims raised, their reliability and admissibility, as well as their consistency with the contractual obligations and terms in force.
Where verification concerns the specific issue of the economic quantification of claims, the reasonably obtainable value of which constitutes an asset for the party that has submitted them, Protos gives an assessment of their reasonableness, evaluating the economic impact in terms of ‘probability curves’ and associating the corresponding ranges of amounts with the various probabilities of success (or a single one, if required).

Protos operates in the various dispute resolution scenarios such as amicable agreement, arbitration and settlement.


Home  / services / Insurance Advisory

Insurance Due Diligence is carried out by a specialised team with a customised perspective, mainly in the financing area to cover a project, and in the corporate area - business or asset management - in favour of companies interested in improving risk management through a detailed insurance analysis.

The sectors covered by the service are Construction & Operation, Manufacturing, Energy and Real Estate.
The objective is to analyse the project or business assets/processes to identify the associated Risk Framework, the forms of insurance mitigation and the market proposals, which vary according to the effectiveness of the coverage and the costs, on which to build the Insurance Programme in the corporate or financing environment.
Protos provides Loss Prevention & Risk Engineering services to insurance companies, policyholders or lending institutions for energy, infrastructure, manufacturing and real estate projects, in order to:
  • Minimise exposure with respect to specific risk factors, identified in a technical analysis performed in accordance with predefined criteria and objectives;
  • Optimise insurance policy parameters and calculate premiums in a well-balanced manner;
  • Confirm whether or not targeted underwriting monitoring is required;
  • Normalise portfolio risks;
  • Assess technical risks related to contractual/performance bonds.
In particular, for each specific project/contract to be funded, the support provided by Protos includes:
  • The identification of any technical, organisational and planning shortfalls, and aspects of major criticality (risk matrix);
  • The establishment of possible corrective and risk mitigation actions;
  • The quantitative and qualitative assessment of residual risks (risk rating).
With the same aims, Protos also offers its support in the implementation of ad hoc IT tools calibrated to the client's needs and aimed at applying, in a systematic and user-friendly manner, shared risk assessment models.
Protos LA is able to provide complete and immediate answers for the broadest and most diverse types of claims, even in highly complex contexts, in Italy and abroad, offering its consultancy services also as a Party-Appointed Expert for court proceedings in the engineering, construction, property and casualty sectors.

This service has proven to be an indispensable and effective tool for risk mitigation, particularly for large infrastructure projects, large industrial and energy generation plants, where the highest risks are attributable to the geological, hydrogeological, geotechnical and environmental context and complexity (urban areas, hydraulic risk areas, etc.).

Typical deliverables of this service include the Risk Management Plan, Cost & Schedule Contingency Plan and Contractual Risk Allocation Matrix.
As part of the diversification of loss adjusting services that it offers to clients in partnership with global service providers, Protos LA offers a specific remediation service. By linking its claims adjustment experience with its technical and engineering expertise in the field of building construction, thanks also to an extensive network of collaborators who operate in an array of different areas, the company offers a comprehensive recovery and maintenance service in the residential and corporate field.. In particular, it offers an all-round assistance service in specific remediation to large operators of real estate assets.

Protos therefore offers a thoroughly innovative settlement format in the current insurance landscape, changing the concept of claims from threat to opportunity and proposing new solutions to manage and eliminate material damage to insured assets due to unpredictable events such as weather events, fires, flooding, etc.
Protos LA proposes the restoration of damaged parts to pre-claim conditions, quickly, efficiently and safely thanks to the support of qualified and highly specialised partners.

The solution adopted is based on optimal interaction between loss adjustors – who contribute to the system’s effectiveness thanks to their ability to assess damage and insurance cover – and remediators.

The advantage of using the specific remediation service is that the insured party, the insurance company and the company can rely on one partner with specific knowledge of the various sectors.


Home  / services / Business Strategy Advisor

Protos carries out consultancy and audit activities on production chains and business processes in the Energy, Infrastructures and Real Estate sectors, with methods tailored according to the client's objectives.
The service consists of a critical reading of the ‘as is’ state to determine, on the basis of gaps identified, one or more ‘to be’ scenarios built on best practices and aimed at developing an evolutionary picture of the company and its processes.
All Protos Group companies provide their clients with transversal approaches and skills, experience, creativity, knowledge and market analysis to identify those scenarios that can create value in their business, optimising their developmental profile.

The tools can be many and varied, implemented on a case by case and sector by sector basis. They include market studies, feasibility studies, investment analyses, technical solutions, organisational solutions, and much more.

In monitoring the regulatory developments that enable to open up new business areas for energy generation and market sales (e.g. power purchase agreements), Protos Energy provides strategic consulting services on energy policies to be adopted for business growth or entry into new markets, and identifies new technical solutions (e.g. bioenergy, smart grid), operational processes and organisational models .
Protos Check supports network operators (e.g. gas, water, etc.), in order to assess the sustainability and priority of certain investments.

Protos Real Estate operates as an Investment Advisor, analysing the profitability of existing portfolios or checking the profitability of acquisition targets, also within the context of NPL portfolios, in collaboration with Protos NPE.

Protos NPE, moreover, has contributed and continues to contribute to the design, also digital, of management strategies and the prioritisation of processes preparatory to the sale and/or value enhancement of non-performing loans.


Home  / services / Appraisal & Market Advisory

Chosen by the ECB (2019-2020) and the Bank of Italy (2014) Asset Quality Review processes.

A transversal service of all group companies, focused on the infrastructure, insurance, real estate, NPE and energy sectors.

Protos, a key player in the appraisal sector, helps a wide range of clients, including banks, leasing institutes, insurance companies, insolvency administrators and liquidators, asset owners and managers, potential buyers, credit management companies, etc., - to identify the most probable market value of ‘as is’ or ‘as (to be) completed’ asset projects, using methodologies, estimation and reporting models based on international and compliance-oriented best practices (RICS, IVSC, IAF/AFRS, IVASS, USPAP, TEGOVA, Bank of Italy, ABI standards).

Depending on the sector/industry – real estate, energy, infrastructure, manufacturing, marine & nautical, agricultural – of the type of asset and the context in which we are called on to operate (financing, transaction, insurance, distressed assets, asset management), market value is sometimes supplemented by estimates in terms of security/MLV, quick sale, forced sale, insurance, judicial, highest & best use or by normal value, value of usufruct/bare ownership, value of surface rights, value of plant and equipment, and statistical evaluations.

Our reports are structured using a common template and are anchored to a web-based platform, but can be customised according to client specifications. Our service includes:
  • A Central Appraisal Unit for establishing methodological guidelines and carrying out spot checks on issued products;

  • An Appraisal Management Team composed of Senior Appraisers responsible for verifying compliance with the methodological guidelines established in the work of internal and external evaluators, and also for managing client relationships according to the service levels established by mandate or by framework agreement;

  • Appraisers, Junior Appraisers and a nationwide network of approximately 150 qualified external technicians.

The strengths of our service are:
  • Independence – Protos is extraneous to commercial activities;
  • Market knowledge – ability to select effective real estate observers;
  • Transversal expertise – ability to manage risk profiles from multiple perspectives.
Protos can be considered a privileged vantage point for certain markets, for which, over the years, it has served in various roles as a reference for players in the financing and transaction fields.

For example, in the Renewable Energy, Infrastructures/Large Construction Industry and Leasing Markets, Protos has evaluated and followed the execution phases, in the last 15 years alone, for:

  • Over 6.5 GWp,
  • Over 1500 real estate projects;
  • Over 200,000 leasing appraisals throughout Italy.
  • Monitoring regulatory developments and market trends (HBU and/or technological);
  • Monitoring implementation applications of innovative or consolidated project solutions;
  • Enriching the internal Competence Centres (valuable reference points) with technical and experiential data.

Protos is active in the renewable energy market and particularly in the photovoltaic sector. Having performed the market leader role of lender’s technical advisor in Italy from 2007 to 2013 and after opening the PV market in South Africa and Israel, the company has successfully entered the secondary market, assisting numerous Italian and foreign groups in their investment and asset management choices.

In the world of infrastructure, Protos represents a benchmark in transactions thanks to its historic connection with the culture and evolutions of this market, Added to this, among other things, is the ability to understand the special needs of its clients, design tailor-made solutions, and prepare technical specifications and price lists of particular complexity for public and private clients.


Home  / services / Accredited Services

Since 2010, Protos Check has carried out project verification for validation purposes, as an independent inspection body accredited by the Italian accreditation body Accredia pursuant to the international standard ISO 17020 and in compliance with current legislation governing the execution of public works (the so-called Procurement Code). The service is aimed at any client that is a contractor of public works, whether entirely public, mixed public and private, a concession holder or a private concern ranging from the energy and environment sector to infrastructure, civil and building engineering in general, as well as urbanisation works for private property developments.
Verification can be carried out both in the initial technical and economic feasibility study phase, in the final design phase when interfacing with institutions, and in the executive phase for the tendering of works. Through complex and structured monitoring, the objective of verification is to establish in particular the completeness of the design, the consistency and comprehensiveness of the economic situation in all aspects, the feasibility of the design solution, the prerequisites for the durability of the work over time, the prerequisites for minimising the risks variants and litigation, the possibility of completing the work within the planned timeframe, the existence of proper safety provisions for workers and users, the adequacy of unit prices used and, lastly, the maintainability of works.
Since 2005, Protos Check has carried out technical checks on constructions, as an independent inspection body accredited by the Italian accreditation body Accredia, pursuant to the international standard ISO 17020. Such inspections are required by insurance companies for the issuance of decennial liability policies to cover the risks of total or partial ruin, or serious construction defects, starting from their completion. Decennial liability policies are mandatory in Italy (and several other countries) for all public works and, to a large extent, for private residential building works.
Over time, decennial liability policies have become standard also for non-residential private developments (e.g. shopping centres, buildings for tertiary or production use), on a voluntary and contractual basis between the parties. Technical checks involve design analysis and the inspection of works on site, referred to structural works or other building subsystems for which the guarantee is required (e.g. waterproofing, plastering, cladding, flooring and facade works, etc.).
Protos Check is the only company in Italy accredited by an independent inspection body for the assessment of construction claims in public contracts and has performed this service since 2012. Protos’ work is aimed at giving an independent and equidistant opinion of the approaches and positions of the parties, based on an analysis of the various elements of claims raised, their reliability and admissibility, as well as their consistency with the contractual obligations and terms in force.
Where verification concerns the specific issue of the economic quantification of claims, the reasonably obtainable value of which constitutes an asset for the party that has submitted them, Protos Check gives an assessment of their reasonableness, evaluating the economic impact in terms of ‘probability curves’ and associating the corresponding ranges of amounts with the various probabilities of success (or a single one, if required). Protos operates in the various dispute resolution scenarios such as amicable agreement, arbitration and settlement.


Home  / services / Ispezioni di 2° livello su opere infrastrutturali

Accredited as a leading player, Protos Check has multidisciplinary management and specialist skills and a consolidated knowledge of the increasingly pressing needs of large infrastructure networks, with particular reference to those under concession.

Thanks to its transversal skills and its utmost attention to the values of independence and transparency, Protos Check uses assessment models based on international and compliance-oriented best practices to carry out second-level audits and inspections of the assets of large infrastructure networks under concession at national level, aimed at:

  • Defining assessment plans;
  • Assessing the maintenance status of works;
  • Optimising concession holders’ processes;
  • Verifying the operation and effectiveness of the surveillance and monitoring of structures performed by the company executing the works, by contractors, or directly by the company’s technical personnel.


The above activities are associated with those of adapting the process management models adopted by concession holders to the continuously evolving regulatory guidelines, and the possibility of providing reports to internal and external control bodies of the concession holder on the extent of infrastructure management activities and the functionality of works in compliance with the most recent legislation, also through third-party certifications.

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